© COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROUP, INC. LESSON IX and tables that provide average values that you may use.  Electrode manufacturers will usually supply the deposition data you need through their Technical Services Department, if it is not already published in their literature. 9.2   FACTORS FOR COST FORMULAS 9.2.1 Labor and Overhead - Labor and overhead may be considered jointly in your calculations.  Labor is the welder’s hourly rate of pay including wages and benefits.  Overhead includes allocated portions of plant operating and maintenance costs.  Weld shops in manu- facturing plants normally have established labor and overhead rates for each department. Labor and overhead rates can vary greatly from plant to plant, and also with location.  Figure 1 shows how labor and overhead may vary and suggests an average value to use in your calcu- lations when the actual value is unknown. 9.2.2 Deposition Rate - The deposition rate is the rate that weld metal can be deposited by a given electrode or welding wire, expressed in pounds per hour.  It is based on continuous operation, not allowing time for stops and starts caused by inserting a new electrode, cleaning slag, termination of the weld or other reasons.  The deposition rate will increase as the welding current is increased. When using solid or flux cored wires, deposition rate will increase as the electrical stick-out is increased, and the same amperage is maintained.  True deposition rates for each welding filler metal, whether it is a coated electrode or a solid or flux cored wire, can only be established by an actual test in which the weldment is weighed before welding and then again after welding, at the end of a measured period of time.  The tables in Figures 8-11 contain average values for the deposition rate of  various types of welding filler metals.  These are based on welding laboratory tests and published data. FIGURE 1 HOURLY WELDING LABOR & OVERHEAD RATES Small Shops $10.00 to $25.00/hr. Large Shops $25.00 to $50.00/hr Average $30.00/hr. APPROXIMATE LABOR AND OVERHEAD RATES

Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes for Welding Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc Electrodes Carbon Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating & Comparing Weld Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding Filler Metals
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