LESSON VII © COPYRIGHT 2000 THE ESAB GROUP, INC. Turn Pages APPENDIX A LESSON VII - GLOSSARY OF TERMS Chemical symbols for the alloying elements commonly used in welding metallurgy: C - Carbon S - Sulfur Mn - Manganese B - Boron Si - Silicon Al - Aluminum Cr - Chromium Cb - Columbium (Niobium) Ni - Nickel Ti - Titanium Mo - Molybdenum W - Tungsten V - Vanadium Co - Cobalt Cu - Copper Pb - Lead P - Phosphorus N - Nitrogen Flux Voids -  Section of a flux cored electrode which contains no flux.  Voids can cause serious problems, especially in low alloy types. Mill Scale -  The iron oxide (FeO) coating normally found on the surface of hot rolled steels.  -       The temperature to which  many  of the low  alloy steels   must be heated before welding.  Preheating retards the cooling rate, allowing more time for the hydrogen to escape, which minimizes underbead cracking.  Preheat temperatures can vary from 10°F to 500°F on ½” sections to 300°F to 600°F on heavy sections, depending upon the alloy. -    The minimum temperature of the weldment between passes.  It is usually about the same as the preheat temperature. Peening -  The mechanical working of metal by means of hammer blows to relieve stresses and reduce distortion.  Peening is recommended for thicker sections (over 1” or 2”) of some alloys on each successive pass.  Experience has shown that peening helps to reduce cracking. Peening may decrease the ductility and impact properties; however, the next pass will nullify this condition.  For this reason, the last surface layers should not be peened. - Reheating the weldment to 1100°F to 1350°F after welding and holding at that temperature for a specified length of time.  Heat treating allows additional hydrogen to escape, lowers the residual stresses due to welding, and restores toughness in the heat affected zone.
Preheat Temperature
Interpass Temperature
Post Weld
Heat Treatment

Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes for Welding Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc Electrodes Carbon Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating & Comparing Weld Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding Filler Metals
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