© COPYRIGHT 1998 THE ESAB GROUP, INC. LESSON II





Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes for Welding Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc Electrodes Carbon Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating & Comparing Weld Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding Filler Metals
relatively narrow.  Argon is more suitable for welding thinner material.  At equal amperage, helium  produces a higher arc voltage than argon.  Since welding heat is the product of volts times amperes, helium produces more available heat at the arc.  This makes it more suitable for welding heavy sections of metal that have high heat conductivity, or for automatic welding operations where higher welding speeds are required. 2.3.4.3 Argon-helium gas mixtures are used in applications where higher heat input and the desirable characteristics of argon are required.  Argon, being a relatively heavy gas, blankets the weld area at lower flow rates.  Argon is preferred for many applications because it costs less than helium. 2.3.4.4 Helium, being approximately 10 times lighter than argon, requires flow rates of 2 to 3 times that of argon to satisfactorily shield the arc. 2.3.5 Electrodes - Electrodes for gas tungsten arc welding are available in diameters from .010" to 1/4" in diameter and standard lengths range from 3" to 24".  The most commonly used sizes, however, are the .040", 1/16", 3/32", and 1/8" diameters. 2.3.5.1 The shape of the tip of the electrode is an important factor in gas tungsten arc welding.  When welding with DCEN, the tip must be ground to a point.  The included angle at which the tip is ground varies with the application, the electrode diameter, and the welding current.  Narrow joints require a relatively small included angle.  When welding very thin material at low currents, a needlelike point ground onto the smallest available electrode may be necessary to stabilize the arc.  Properly ground electrodes will assure easy arc starting, good arc stability, and proper bead width. 2.3.5.2 When welding with AC, grinding the electrode tip is not necessary.  When proper welding current is used, the electrode will form a hemispherical end.  If the proper welding current is exceeded, the end will become bulbous in shape and possibly melt off to contaminate the weld metal. 2.3.5.3 The American Welding Society has published Specification AWS A5.12-80 for tungsten arc welding electrodes that classifies the electrodes on the basis of their chemical composition, size and finish.  Briefly, the types specified are listed below: 1)   Pure Tungsten (AWS EWP) Color Code:  Green Used for less critical applications.  The cost is low and they give good results at relatively low currents on a variety of metals.  Most stable arc when used on AC, either balanced wave or continuous high frequency.
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