1 THE OXY-ACETYLENE FLAME In oxy-acetylene welding, the ”tool” used is not really the torch; it’s the flame. The torch should never touch the material being welded. The only purpose of the torch is to provide a gas mixture which will produce the flame best suited to the work to be done. There are three distinct types of oxy-acetylene flames, usually termed: Neutral Excess Acetylene (or ”carburizing”) Oxidizing (or ”excess oxygen” ) The type of flame produced depends upon the ratio of oxygen to acetylene in the gas mixture which leaves the torch tip. The neutral flame (Fig. 4-1) is produced when the ratio of oxygen to acetylene, in the mixture leaving the torch, is almost exactly one-to-one. It’s termed ”neutral” because it will usually have no chemical effect on the metal being welded. It will not oxidize the weld metal; it will not cause an increase in the carbon content of the weld metal. The excess acetylene flame (Fig. 4-2), as its name implies, is created when the proportion of acetylene in the mixture is higher than that required to produce the neutral flame. Used on steel, it will cause an increase in the carbon content of the weld metal. The oxidizing flame (Fig. 4-3) results from burning a mixture which contains more oxygen than required for a neutral flame. It will oxidize or ”burn” some of the metal being welded. Hard- Surfacing, Building Fusion Welding Carbon Welding Non-Ferrous Metals Heating & Heat Treating Braze Welding Welding Cast Iron Welding Ferrous Metals Brazing & Soldering Equipment Set-Up Operation Equipment For OXY-Acet Structure of Steel Mechanical Properties of Metals Oxygen & Acetylene OXY-Acet Flame Physical Properties of Metals How Steels Are Classified Expansion & Contraction Prep For Welding OXY-Acet Welding & Cutting Safety Practices Manual Cutting Oxygen Cutting By Machine Appendices Testing & Inspecting