Hard-
Surfacing,
Building
Fusion
Welding
Carbon
Welding Non-Ferrous Metals
Heating
& Heat
Treating
Braze
Welding
Welding Cast Iron Welding Ferrous Metals
Brazing
&
Soldering
Equipment
Set-Up
Operation
Equipment
For
OXY-Acet
Structure
of
Steel
Mechanical
Properties
of Metals
Oxygen
&
Acetylene
OXY-Acet
Flame
Physical
Properties
of Metals
How Steels
Are
Classified
Expansion
&
Contraction
Prep
For
Welding
OXY-Acet
Welding
& Cutting
Safety
Practices
Manual
Cutting
Oxygen
Cutting By
Machine
Appendices
Testing
&
Inspecting
41 Copper – The fumes and dust cause irritation of the upper respiratory tract, metallic taste in the mouth, nausea, metal fume fever, and in some instances, discoloration of the skin and hair. Copper dust can act as an irritant to skin causing itching, redness, and dermatitis. It may also cause conjunctivitis and small ulcers of the cornea. Fluorides – Fluoride fumes can he very irritating to eyes, nose, and throat. Some Fluorine compounds can cause death. Fluorides may be formed when welding with fluoride containing rods, and with some fluxes. Iron Oxide – Inhalation of these fumes and dust may cause ”metal fume fever” (an influenza-like illness lasting 24 to 48 hours), and may also cause a benign pneumoconiosis (siderosis). Pure iron oxide probably does not cause fibrotic pulmonary changes, whereas inhalation of iron oxide plus certain other substances may cause lung injury. Lead – Lead fumes or fine dust, when inhaled, can cause lead poisoning, anemia, muscle weakness, nausea, vomiting, colic, or death. Be careful to guard against lead poisoning when welding or cutting materials such as lead-coated containers and metals which have been painted. In all such cases, lead produces toxic fumes. Manganese – Manganese dust and fumes are irritants to the eye and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. Early recognition of chronic manganese poisoning is difficult. Progression of disease manifestations can vary widely among individuals. Signs and symptoms may include apathy, irritability, loss of appetite, headache, weakness of the muscles in the legs, and joint aches. Speech disturbances are common. Chronic manganese poisoning, although disabling, is usually not fatal. Nickel – Skin sensitization or ”nickel itch” is a commonly seen toxic reaction lo nickel dusts. Nickel dust and fumes may also irritate the conjunctivae of the eye and the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. Nickel and its compounds have been reported to produce an increased incidence of cancer of the lung and nasal passages. Nitrogen Oxides – Nitrogen oxides may irritate the eyes and mucous membranes. High concentrations may produce severe pulmonary irritation and methemoglobinemia. Acute exposure to high concentrations may produce immediate fatigue, cyanosis (”blue lips and skin”), cough, shortness of breath, chills, fever, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Collapse and death may occur if the exposure is sufficiently high. Survivors may develop severe and increasing shortness of breath due to chronic lung disease. Continued on next page...