7 Continued on next page... Weld Bead Characteristics PENETRATION Weld penetration is the distance that the fusion line extends below the surface of the material being welded. Welding current is of primary importance to penetration. As Figure 7-7 illustrates, weld penetration is directly related to welding current. An increase or decrease in the current will increase or decrease the weld penetration respectively. However, we have seen that welding current can be varied without changing the wire feed speed; namely, through the variation of the tip-to-work distance. The effect of tip-to-work distance on weld penetration is opposite in nature to that of welding current. An increase in the tip-to-work distance will decrease welding current and penetration. Of course, the converse is also true. In some applications, many operators have found it helpful to use this property to control penetration. Changing the tip-to-work distance while welding prevents burnthrough when there are discontinuities in material thicknesses or joint gap. Figure 7-7 - Effect of Welding Current on Weld Penetration Carbon Steel-Short Arc C-25 Shielding
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