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Short Arc
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4 Short Circuit (Short Arc) Welding Short arc welding uses small wire in the range of .030 in. (.76 mm) to .045 in. (1.1 mm) diameter and operates at low arc lengths (low voltages) and welding currents. A small, fast-freezing weld puddle is obtained. This welding technique is particularly useful for joining thin materials in any position, thick materials in the vertical and overhead position, and for filling large gaps. Short arc welding should also be used where minimum distortion of  the workpiece is a requirement. Metal is transferred from the wire to the weld pool only when contact between the two is made, or at each short circuit. The wire short circuits to the workpiece 20 to 200 times per second.
Figure 1-2 - Current-Voltage vs. Time Typical Short Arc Cycle