Lesson 1
The Basics of Arc Welding
Lesson 2
Common Electric
Arc Welding Processes
Lesson 3
Covered Electrodes for Welding
Mild Steels
Lesson 4
Covered Electrodes for Welding Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 5
Welding Filler Metals for Stainless Steels
Lesson 6
Carbon & Low Alloy
Steel Filler Metals -
GMAW,GTAW,SAW
Lesson 7
Flux Cored Arc Electrodes Carbon Low Alloy Steels
Lesson 8
Hardsurfacing Electrodes
Lesson 9
Estimating & Comparing Weld Metal Costs
Lesson 10
Reliability of Welding Filler Metals
© COPYRIGHT 1998 THE ESAB GROUP, INC. TABLE OF CONTENTS LESSON I THE BASICS OF ARC WELDING PART A. AN INTRODUCTION TO METALS Section Nr. Section Title Page 1.1 Source and Manufacturing............................................................. 1 1.1.1 Rimmed Steel ................................................................................... 2 1.1.2 Capped Steel .................................................................................... 2 1.1.3 Killed Steel ........................................................................................ 3 1.1.4 Semi-Killed Steel............................................................................... 3 1.1.5 Vacuum Deoxidized Steel ................................................................. 3 1.2 Classification of Steels................................................................... 3 1.2.1 Carbon Steel ..................................................................................... 3 1.2.2 Low Alloy Steel.................................................................................. 3 1.2.3 High Alloy Steel ................................................................................. 4 1.3 Specifications  ................................................................................. 5 1.4 Crystalline Structure of Metals ...................................................... 6 1.4.1 Grains and Grain Boundaries ........................................................... 7 1.5 Heat Treatment ................................................................................ 8 1.5.1 Preheat ............................................................................................. 8 1.5.2 Stress Relieving ................................................................................ 9 1.5.3 Hardening ......................................................................................... 9 1.5.4 Tempering ......................................................................................... 9 1.5.5 Annealing .......................................................................................... 9 1.5.6 Normalizing ....................................................................................... 10 1.5.7 Heat Treatment Trade-Off ................................................................. 10 1.6 Properties of Metals........................................................................ 10 1.6.1 Tensile Strength ................................................................................ 10 1.6.2 Yield Strength.................................................................................... 11 1.6.3 Ultimate Tensile Strength .................................................................. 11 1.6.4 Percentage of Elongation  ................................................................. 11

 

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